Entering the 5th room of the exhibition we arrive at its actual historical part. The etymology of the name of the town in itself implies historicity. The word “böszörmény” in the old Hungarian language meant a probably Bulgarian-Turk ethnic group of Muslim religion who, joining the Hungarians, participated in the Conquest. Therefore the name of the town signifies that the first habitants of the settlement were the Böszörmény. Other settlements existed in Hungary in the Árpád Age with similar names. It is known for sure that a group of Böszörmény people, in other words Ishmaelites, lived in Salamon village at the outskirts of Hajdúböszörmény. According to the evidences of the archeological finds the settlement in the period preceding the Tartar Invasion was situated on the actual territory of the Brickyard, was destroyed in 1241 and revived in its present-day place. The inhabitants of this latter one had already been Catholics, Hungarians. In the first show-case material remains presenting this period are displayed. One of the most interesting pieces is the disc representing Jesus Christ, a devotional object originating from Limoge (France) which truly reflects the spirituality of the country’s reconstruction works of King Béla IV.
In the 14th century Böszörmény was part of the estate of Debrecen, in the 15th century still as a part of the estate it became property of Serbian despots then that of the Hunyadi. In 1410 it was already a market-town. The tragic battle at Mohács (1526) did not have direct effects on this territory, it was only after the defeat of the market town, Szolnok (1552) that it gradually became part of the Ottoman Empire’s sphere of interest. That was the time when the final characteristic features of Hajdúság emerged, which was originally the home of a cattle-drover population. In the middle of the 16th century they lived exclusively by their military services. In the other showcase of the room we can find a typical representation of Haiduk soldiers together with some traditional uniforms. During the Fifteen-Years War (1591-1606) they grew in number, their most important role in history was the participation in the Bocskai Revolt. It happened with the help of the Haiduk and their weapons that the Prince of Transylvania could defeat the troops of the Habsburg Emperor, and as a sign of acknowledgment he offered them lands and noble privileges settling 10 thousand Haiduk soldiers in the territories of the present-day Haiduk Towns. That is why István Bocskai’s cult is still alive here. An outstanding item of the room is a painting from the beginning of the 19th century by János Szűcs, painter from Hajdúdorog, representing István Bocskai. Originally Hajdúböszörmény had not been among the territories granted to the Haiduk, this town was peopled later according to the Charter of Gábor Báthory by Haiduks from Kálló. This became necessary because there was such a great tension and disturbance between the Haiduk possessing the market town Kalló, and the Royal Hungarian soldiers of the castle of Kalló, that it almost lead to the breaking of peace between the Principality of Transylvania and the Habsburgs.
The Haiduk Towns were situated on the territory of Szabolcs Comitat and were part of Partium in a wider sense, in the course of time they belonged alternately to the Principality of Transylvania and Royal Hungary. Their military importance did not cease until the defeat of Várad (1660), they participated in the military campaigns of the actual Prince of Transylvania, and remained faithful till the last moment to György Rákóczi II, who had a miserable fate. In revenge, the Turks burnt down the Haiduk Towns, after which their importance decreased and the inhabitants of the towns changed for a rural way of life. In the 17th century state taxation was imposed upon them, which meant a considerable derogation of their privileges. Part of the development as a free peasant town the Haiduk Towns founded the Haiduk District.